Basic surface preparation 
Glaze and Glazing

Material descriptions 
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Brushes are manufactured in many different forms and have specific functions. Brushes are used in the commercial and residential paint industries, the artist communities, and cosmetics and cooking.

  1. anatomy
    1. -add drawing- bristle, ferrel, stalk
  2. commercial / home
    1. bristle
  3. synthetic
    1. oil / varnish
    2. latex / acrylic
  4. decorative
    1. dusting brushes
    2. badger softener or blender
    3. stippling brush
    4. varnish brushes
    5. mops, camel hair
    6. fitch
    7. stencilling
    8. lining brush
    9. graining
    10. gilding brushes
  5. artists
    1. oil
    2. acrylic
    3. watercolor
    4. hogs hair / bristle
    5. sable


Generally refers to paper or plastic that has adhesive on one or both sides. There are many varieties of tape and each has a specific function.

Masking: A general-purpose adhesive tape.

Painters tape: A low tack tape used especially in commercial and residential painting. Their low adhesive quality makes it particularly useful for masking furniture, and delicate wall surfaces such as wallpaper. Stronger tapes like masking tape can pull the surface finish off of furniture or run a higher risk of tearing wallpaper when removed.

To create your own low-tack tape using regular masking tape, tear desired length strips of tape. Stick to your shirt or other fabric. Remove and repeat. This process catches lint in the adhesive, and subsequently reduces the stickiness or tackiness of the tape.

Always remove tape at the completion of each working session on a project. The risk of damage to the masked surface increases proportionately with time. Even over night maybe enough time for the adhesive to dry sufficiently to tear or pull off wallpaper or paint from the masked area.

Low tack: Sometimes referred to as Painterís tape or Blue tape. Their low adhesive quality makes it particularly useful for masking furniture, and delicate wall surfaces such as wallpaper.

Paper tape: Paper tape is made of paper with Ĺ of one side having low-tack adhesive properties. Excellent for masking rooms, baseboards, trim such as windows and doors. The extra width of this tape makes it especially suited for decorative finishes such as color washing, rag rolling and sponging.

To remove old tape adhesive residue use acetone on a clean rag. Always test in an inconspicuous area first as acetone my damage surface.

Trowels and Hocks:

Generally used for plastering and decorative techniques such as faux fresco, polished plasters, stucco lustro and other decorative plaster techniques. 

Trowels: Differ in size and flexibility. He most common trowels are used for drywall plastering. Refer to the artsparx archive for drywall, plastering and plaster joint techniques.

Hocks: General referred to as the palette to hold plaster compound during application.

Various types of trowels and some common uses.

-illustrations- General, drywall, touch-up, concrete, surfaces

-illustrations- Decorative, polished plasters, terrazzo

-illustrations- Specialty, tiling, linoleum

Paint rollers:

Roller heads are designed to facilitate in the application of paint over large surfaces. Rollers are made in varying thick nesses and materials, with each one being used for a specific surface texture. Rollers can be made from foam, synthetic fibers and sheepskin.

Nap and nap grades: Roller nap refers to the thickness of the rollers surface. One chooses the thickness of the nap depending on the surface to be painted, stained or varnished.

Quick chart - roller nap identification
1/4 inch fine or smooth surfaces. New walls, ceilings, wood doors and trim
3/8 inch smooth to lightly textured surfaces. Walls, floor finishes
1/2 inch medium rough surfaces. Walls, textured plaster, concrete
3/4 inch rough surfaces. Textured walls and ceilings, textured plaster, concrete

Paint trays and tray liners: 

Design to hold paint or varnish to be used with a roller. Helps the even distribution of paint or varnish onto a roller for quick application onto large surfaces such as walls, floors and ceilings. Paint trays are produced in many sizes and disposable paint tray liners are time saving and make for easy clean up.

Tack cloths:

A cheesecloth that has been impregnated with varnish to create a slightly sticky, or tacky surface. Commercially available, tack cloths are used extensively in the commercial and residential painting communities and the furniture and refinishing industries. Due to the stickiness of the cloth, tack cloths are used to remove dust and loose particles from any surface prior to painting, staining or varnishing.


A flat surface, typically made of metal, of varying sizes and widths. Used in the preparation and re-finishing of furniture, objects and commercial and residential building. Scrapers can have replaceable razor blades for use on glass and paint stripping. Scrapers are similar to some kinds of trowels, they are often broad, firm and flat blades used for paint and varnish removal from wood and metal surfaces.

Power tools:


Used for inserting and removing screws from metal, wood, plaster and stone surfaces. The head of a screwdriver can have different shapes. The most common being the flat head and the Philips head.


Screws have different functions and are coated and tempered differently dependant on there use. The configuration of  a screw head varies, the most common being the flat head and the Philips head screw.

-illustration and description of different screws. Metal, wood, drywall, etc.


-illustration and description of different nails. Metal, wood, drywall, etc.


Multi purpose tool primarily designed for the insertion and removal of nails into wood, metal and stone surfaces.

Types of hammers:

  1. Metal: For nail driving and removal.

  2. Rubber: Various uses. Used when needed to adjust softer surfaces, such as wooden frames. Non-marring.

  3. Raw hide: Used in the processes of jewelry  making. Non-marring.

  4. Plastic: Non-marring.

  5. Brass head hammers: Used with steel tools for safer use and added longevity to steel tools.

  6. Ball peen hammers: General-purpose hammer used for flattening, shaping or removing dents.


Primarily made of wood. Mallets are used to drive chisels when wood and stone carving.

Keeping hammer heads tight and secure.
A blacksmithing technique. Place hammer into automotive antifreeze for about 48 hours. This will swell the wood of the hammer and fills the wood fibers. This process provides long lasting results, as the process seems to resist drying out.


  1. Caulk, glues, tape, epoxy, gelatin, hide glues (sizing) 
    1. Glue
    2. Tape
    3. Caulk
    4. Mastic
    5. Liquid nails
    6. Epoxy, 2 part bonding
  2. Gilding
    1. Hide glue
    2. Gelatin
    3. Synthetic

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